BERGFROST FOCUSES ON COLD STORAGE OF FISH SPECIES SUCH AS THESE
The Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) is a herring of the family Clupeidae, one of the world’s most abundant fish species. Atlantic herring can be found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and the herring fishery has historically been important for both European and North American economies. Atlantic herring is a pelagic species that travels in large schools, measured up to 4 cubic kilometers in size, containing an estimated 4 billion fish. Such schools of herring are found across the Atlantic, from the eastern coast of North America to the southern tip of Greenland, from off Iceland and around the Faroe Islands to the Bay of Biscay and up to Novaya Zemlya off the northern coast of Russia. Herring is a long and flexible fish with shiny silver skin and a strip of dark blue on the top. Feeding on copepods, krill and small fish, it can grow up to 50 centimeters in length yet rarely exceeds 40 cm. Herring schools mostly keep close to shore however also occur out in the ocean. Like other pelagic species, herring tend to stay close to the surface of the sea.
The Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is a migratory species found in both the eastern and western regions of the North Atlantic. The fish travels far and wide, all the way from the North Sea, up past the Faroe Islands and Iceland and into the Baltic Sea. It spends the warmer months close to shore and near the ocean surface, appearing along the coast in spring and departing with the arrival of colder weather in the fall and winter months. The mackerel can be recognized by the dark tiger-like stripes across its blue back. The sides are silver with a tinge of purple and the stomach is white. The Atlantic mackerel can grow to 70 centimeters in length, but averages around 30-40 cm when caught. The mackerel is a carnivore and lives off krill, crustaceans and small fish. The mackerel is sought after for its meat, which is strong in flavor and high in oil content and omega-3 fatty acids among other nutrients. Nearly a million tonnes of Atlantic mackerel are caught per year globally, most of which is sold fresh, frozen, smoked, or canned.
The blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), one of the two species in the genus Micromesistius in the cod family, is common in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and also occurs in the northern parts of the Mediterranean. Blue whiting is most common at depths between 100 and 600 meters however also occurs closer to the surface. Blue whiting has a long, narrow body and a silvery underbody. The fish can attain a length of more than 40 centimeters. It feeds on crustaceans such as krill and amphipods with larger fish also feeding on smaller fish. In recent decades blue whiting has become increasingly important to commercial fishing in northern Europe and Russia. Blue whiting in the northeast Atlantic is a straddling stock, occupying the exclusive economic zones of the Faroe Islands, the European Union, Iceland and Norway, as well as the high seas. The species is increasingly considered a food fish and marketed as such, typically whole frozen. Also, blue whiting mince has gained importance as an ingredient in the global seafood industry.
The capelin or caplin (Mallotus villosus) is a small forage fish of the smelt family found in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Arctic oceans. In the summer, it grazes on dense swarms of plankton at the edge of the ice shelf. Larger capelin also eat krill and other crustaceans. Among others, whales, seals, Atlantic cod, Atlantic mackerel, squid, and seabirds prey on capelin, in particular during the spawning season while the capelin migrate south. Capelin spawn on sand and gravel bottoms or sandy beaches at the age of two to six years. When spawning on beaches, capelin have an extremely high post-spawning mortality rate which, for males, is close to 100 percent. Males reach 20 centimeters in length, while females are up to 25.2 cm long. They are olive-colored dorsally, shading to silver on the sides. Males have a translucent ridge on both sides of their bodies and the ventral aspects of the males iridesce reddish at the time of spawn. Capelin populations in the Barents Sea and around Iceland migrate extensively. Barents Sea capelin migrate during winter and early spring to the coast of northern Norway (Finnmark) and the Kola Peninsula (Russia) for spawning. During summer and autumn, capelin migrate north and north-eastward for feeding.
The saithe (Pollachius virens) is a codfish, a species of marine fish in the Pollachius genus, also known as coalfish, coley, Boston blue or Atlantic pollock. The saithe has three dorsal fins and two posterior fins with a darker color on the back, charcoal or a blueish black which gradually turns lighter towards the stomach, and a white stripe across the sides. Saithe is considered both a demersal and a pelagic fish as it can be found between the ocean surface and a depth of 450 meters. It is common in the northern parts of the North Atlantic. Adults can typically live up to 16–20 years and grow to 100–120 centimeters, even up to 130 cm. Juveniles tend to be found close to shore, particularly in rocky areas, and tend to move out into deeper waters as they grow. The saithe is a schooling fish and large numbers can gather where there is plenty of food. The young saithe eats crustaceans and small fish, while the mature saithe eats krill and small fish. In the western Atlantic, the species is found off southwest Greenland and along the North American coast. Saithe is often caught in mixed-species fisheries. The main fishing areas of the eastern Atlantic are in the Barents Sea, around Iceland, around the Faroe Islands, in the North Sea and in the Celtic Sea.
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a benthopelagic fish of the family Gadidae, widely consumed by humans. Atlantic cod has a wide distribution on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. At the western side it ranges from Cape Hatteras in the south to around Greenland in the north, and on the eastern cost from Biscaya in south to the Arctic Ocean in the north. The northeast Atlantic has the largest population of cod, by far the largest part of which is the Northeast Arctic cod, also known as the Arcto-Norwegian cod. The cod can be recognized by a distinct “beard” barbel under its chin which it uses to feel its way across the seabed. It has a greyish brown or yellowy green colour on its back and sides and the stomach is white or a light grey, with the colors varying depending on environment. In size the cod normally ranges between 60 and 120 centimeters but it can grow up to 200 cm. The Atlantic cod is a demersal fish and mostly keeps to the ocean floor. It can be found at depths of around 35-40 meters and will rarely go below 600 m. Cod are carnivores and opportunistic eaters that will prey on just about anything. The cod was fished for thousand years by Europeans who followed it across the Atlantic to North America.
The deepwater redfish (Sebastes mentella), also known as ocean perch, or the beaked redfish, can reach a size of 55–70 centimeters however is more often less than 45 cm. It lives in relatively high concentrations in the North Atlantic, for example the Irminger Sea where it is commercially fished. Deepwater redfish dwell at depths between 100 and 1,000 meters and are often found in the upper regions of the sea. They feed on a variety of food organisms, including small fishes. Redfish prefer cold waters and a rocky seabed.
The Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), also known as Greenland turbot, black halibut, or Newfoundland turbot, is a flatfish that belongs to the Pleuronectidae family of right-eye flounders. The predatory fish dwells mainly at depths between 500 and 1,000 meters in the cold northern Atlantic, northern Pacific, and Arctic Oceans. It can swim in a vertical position and both sides of its body are a speckled brown color. The Greenland halibut supports important fisheries and is caught in large quantities.
The haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is a saltwater ray-finned fish from the family Gadidae, the true cods. It is found in the North Atlantic Ocean and associated seas where it is an important species for fisheries, especially in northern Europe where it is marketed fresh, frozen and smoked. The demersal species occurs at depths from 10 to 450 meters, though mostly at 80-200 m. It is found over substrates made up of rock, sand, gravel or shells and it prefers temperatures of between 4 and 10 °C.
Golden redfish (Seebastes norvegicus/marinus), also known as ocean perch, or the rose fish, is a deep sea species of North Atlantic rockfish. One of the main fishing areas of the large, slow-growing and late-maturing fish is the Irminger Sea. Compared to the more solid red color of its deepwater redfish cousin, the golden redfish has an orange tinge to the skin. It can grow up to 100 centimeters in size yet rarely exceeds 40-55 cm. Redfish have one long dorsal fin with hard spikes in towards the front, and the posterior fin also has some similar spikes.
The Atlantic wolffish (Anarhichas lupus), also known as Atlantic catfish, or the seawolf, is a large marine fish of the family Anarhichadidae, native to the North Atlantic Ocean. The powerful jaws and large canine teeth of the voracious predator are used to hunt and eat hard-bodied or spiny invertebrates, such as sea urchins, crabs, and large marine snails. You would certainly not want to let your fingers get too close to those jaws! The Atlantic wolffish thrives in cold water with temperature between -1 and 11 ºC and the depth of its habitat ranges between 20 and 500 meters.
The spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor), also known as spotted catfish, or the leopardfish, is a large marine fish of the family Anarhichadidae. The bottom-dwelling species is found across the North Atlantic and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean from the north of Russia and the Scandinavian Peninsula to the Scotian Shelf, off Nova Scotia, Canada. Many of its characteristics are similar to those of its Atlantic wolffish cousin, for example prominent canine teeth in front of both jaws, a heavy head with a rounded snout, small eyes and a long body without pelvic fins.